Application - Industrial Water - Pulp & Paper

Most Frequently Asked Questions  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Chlorine, Free
Control disinfection processes using hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid (free chlorine). 8021
10231
COD
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Used as a surrogate for BOD, and for effluent reporting when allowed by discharge permit. Provides a measure of organic "food" available to biological treatment steps and an estimate of the effect of the plant effluent on the receiving body. Can be correlated to BOD on a plant-by-plant basis, if influent characteristics are constant. Paper mills may prefer mercury-free formulations. 8000
10067
Phosphate, Reactive HR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. 8178
8114
Silica, ULR/LR Control silica in boiler feedwaters (Allowable silica concentration is inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure.) Can cause scaling in boilers and cooling systems, as well as deposition on generator turbine blades. 8186
8282
Hardness, LR/ULR Assure that demineralizer systems are producing ultrapure feedwater, to avoid scaling in boiler systems. 8030
8374
Oxygen Scavengers Organic compounds used to eliminate traces of oxygen in high pressure boiler feedwaters (includes carbohydrazide, diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA), hydroquinone, isoascorbic acid, methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKOR), and others). 8140
Silica, HR Control silica in boiler feedwaters (Allowable silica concentration is inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure.) Can cause scaling in boilers and cooling systems, as well as deposition on generator turbine blades. 8185
Phosphate, Reactive LR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. 8114
8178
10214
Iron Can cause deposits in water lines, boilers, etc. Can interfere with industrial processes. May indicate corrosion. 8008
8147
8112
10229
Molybdenum, HR Anodic corrosion inhibitor for cooling systems. High cost is causing reduced usage and/or lower concentrations. 8036
Chlorine, Total
Control cooling system microbial control processes using halogen-based biocides. Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine (hypochlorite ion/hypochlorous acid) and combined chlorine (chloramines). May also be used to monitor effluent disinfection processes and to protect RO / membrane-based filtration systems. 8167
10070
10232
Aluminum Monitor residual coagulant from purification processes; alum (aluminum sulfate) is a common coagulant. Can cause deposits in cooling systems and contribute to boiler scale. 8012
8326
10215

Also Consider  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Alkalinity Control foaming/carryover and steel embrittlement in boilers, prevent corrosion in condensate lines, scaling in cooling systems. Allowable levels are inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure. Also used to monitor product processes. 8203
8221
Copper Monitor/control corrosion of copper-based alloys. Biocidal properties may be utilized in open cooling systems. 8506
10238
Sulfite Control concentration of sulfite-based oxygen scavengers (generally in low pressure boilers). 8071
8216