Application - Industrial Water - Power

Most Frequently Asked Questions  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Chlorine, Free
Control cooling system microbial control processes using halogen-based biocides. Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine (hypochlorite ion/hypochlorous acid) and combined chlorine (chloramines). May also be used to monitor effluent disinfection processes and to protect RO / membrane-based filtration systems. 8021
10231
Silica, ULR/LR Control silica in boiler feedwaters (Allowable silica concentration is inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure.) Can cause scaling in boilers and cooling systems, as well as deposition on generator turbine blades. 8186
8282
Phosphate, Reactive HR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. Phosphonate treatment compounds can also be monitored by measuring phosphate after a brief digestion. 8048
8178
10209
Hardness, Titration Monitor to check effectiveness of hardness removal or scaling control treatment practices. Lime softening, lime process, lime-soda ash processes are commonly used to precipitate or remove hardness. Hardness is also monitored to check effectiveness / regeneration of ion-exchange processes. Use colorimetric methods for low concentrations. 8213
8226
Calcium
(Ca Hardness) Titration
Monitor to check effectiveness of hardness removal or scaling control treatment practices. Lime softening, lime process, lime-soda ash processes are commonly used to precipitate or remove hardness. Hardness is also monitored to check effectiveness/ regeneration of ion-exchange processes. Use colorimetric method for low concentrations. 8204
8222
pH (buffer) Used to prevent deposits and corrosion in boiler tubes. Buffers are used to calibrate / standardize pH meters for monitoring/control of pH throughout the plant. pH meter & electrode - see instrument manual
Silica, HR Control silica in boiler feedwaters (Allowable silica concentration is inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure.) Can cause scaling in boilers and cooling systems, as well as deposition on generator turbine blades. 8185
Copper Monitor/control corrosion of copper-based alloys. Biocidal properties may be utilized in open systems. 8506
10238
Alkalinity Control foaming/carryover and steel embrittlement in boilers, prevent corrosion in condensate lines, scaling in cooling systems. Allowable levels are inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure. Also used to control water softening processes. 8203
8221
Chloride, Titration Control corrosive properties of boiler systems and cooling waters. Removed to very low levels by utility deionizer systems. Titration methods are applicable to higher levels. Use colorimetry for low concentrations. 8206
8207
8225
Iron Can cause deposits in water lines, boilers, etc. Can interfere with industrial processes. May indicate corrosion. 8008
8147
8112
10229
Oxygen Scavengers Organic compounds used to eliminate traces of oxygen in high pressure boiler feedwaters (includes carbohydrazide, diethylhydroxylamine (DEHA), hydroquinone, isoascorbic acid, methyl ethyl ketoxime (MEKOR), and others). 8140
Hydrazine Control concentration of hydrazine—boiler oxygen scavenger (for corrosion control). 8141
Chlorine, Total
Control cooling system microbial control processes using halogen-based biocides. Total chlorine is the sum of free chlorine (hypochlorite ion/hypochlorous acid) and combined chlorine (chloramines). May also be used to monitor effluent disinfection processes and to protect RO / membrane-based filtration systems. 8167
10070
10232
Molybdenum, HR Anodic corrosion inhibitor for cooling systems. High cost is causing reduced usage and/or lower concentrations. 8036

Also Consider  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Ammonia Control ammonia-based pH control additives, corrosion of copper and zinc alloys in boilers. 8038
10031
10205
Phosphate, Reactive LR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. Phosphonate treatment compounds can also be monitored by measuring phosphate after a brief digestion. 8048
8178
10214
Hardness, ULR Assure that demineralizer systems are producing ultrapure feedwater, to avoid scaling in boiler systems. 8030
8374
Oxygen, Dissolved LR Control oxygen content of boiler waters/feedwaters. Part per billion levels required for high pressure units. 8316
Conductivity Used as a measure of dissolved solids (this can affect carryover of boiler contaminants into steam). Monitor blowdown / water replenishment in boilers, control cycles of concentration in cooling systems. 8160
Conductivity meter and probe
Turbidity Surrogate for suspended solids concentration measurement. Can cause deposition in water lines Turbidimeter (2100xx) See instrument manual
Sulfite Control concentration of sulfite-based oxygen scavengers (generally in low pressure boilers). 8071
8216