Application - Industrial Water - Chemical

Most Frequently Asked Questions  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Chlorine, Free
Data used to control Chlorine based disinfection processes, required for reporting at POE and in the distribution system, also used in monitoring in the distribution system during flushing and line break maintenance. EPA Primary DW Standard at 4.0 mg/L as CL2. 8021
10231
Silica, LR/ULR Control silica in boiler feedwaters (Allowable silica concentration is inversely proportional to boiler operating pressure.) Can cause scaling in boilers and cooling systems. 8186
8282
Iron Can cause deposits in water lines, boilers, etc. Causes stains. Can interfere with industrial processes (dying, tanning, papermaking, etc.) May indicate corrosion. 8008
8147
8112
10229
Phosphate, Reactive LR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. 8048
8178
10209
Phosphate, Reactive HR Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. 8178
8114
10214
Hardness, Titration Monitor incoming water for mineral content. Adjust product water quality and sensory factors. Monitor performance of water softening systems, to avoid scaling and assess load on reverse osmosis systems. 8213
8226
Alkalinity Control flavor/sensory/quality issues in bottled waters. May be used to adjust product water (e.g. in brewing). 8203
8221
COD
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Used as a surrogate for BOD, and for effluent reporting when allowed by discharge permit. Provides a measure of organic "food" available to biological treatment steps and an estimate of the effect of the plant effluent on the receiving body. Can be correlated to BOD on a plant-by-plant basis, if influent characteristics are constant. 8000
10067
Chlorine, Total
Data used to control Chlorine based disinfection processes, required for reporting at POE and in the distribution system, also used in monitoring in the distribution system during flushing and line break maintenance. EPA Primary DW Standard at 4.0 mg/L as CL2. 8167
10070
10232
Silica, HR Control silica content of drum water in low pressure boilers. Silica-based additives can be used as adsorbed-film corrosion inhibitors in cooling systems. 8185
Calcium
(Ca Hardness) Titration
Monitor incoming water for mineral content. Adjust product water quality and sensory factors. Monitor performance of water softening systems, to avoid scaling and assess load on reverse osmosis systems. 8204
8222
BOD
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Provides a relative measure of "food" available to biological treatment process steps, the degree of stabilization of the wastewater and an estimate of the effect of the effluent on the receiving water body. Used for plant loading/design considerations and EPA reporting. 5 day test period is too slow for process control - many plants use COD or TOC as an estimate. 8043
8215
pH (buffer) Standardize pH meters for monitoring/control of pH throughout plant. pH meter & electrode - see instrument manual

Also Consider  

Parameter Purpose of Test Method
Sulfite Control concentration of sulfite-based oxygen scavengers (generally low pressure boilers). 8071
8216
Turbidity Surrogate for suspended solids concentration measurement. Particles can cause deposition in water lines. Turbidimeter (2100xx) - see instrument manual
Phosphate, Total Can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling systems and drinking water distribution systems. Also used as a boiler treatment, to precipitate calcium and avoid calcium sulfate scale formation on surfaces. Total phosphate includes reactive (ortho), inorganic (poly) and organic forms. 8190
10209
10210
Ammonia Control ammonia-based pH control additives, corrosion of copper and zinc alloys in boilers. 8038
10031
10205
Ammonia, ISE Control ammonia-based pH control additives, prevent corrosion of copper and zinc alloys in boilers. Also used to monitor product processes. Meter and ISE - see ISE and meter manuals
Chloride Monitor incoming water/control salt content for taste consistency/health issues. 8206
8207
8225
Hardness, LR/ULR Assure that demineralizer systems are producing ultrapure feedwater, to avoid scaling in boiler systems. 8030
8374
Molybdenum, HR Anodic corrosion inhibitor for cooling systems. 8169
Nitrate, HR Used in some boiler systmes to inhibit metal embrittlement. May have additional applications which vary by facility operations/products. 10020
8039
10206
Nitrite, HR Used at high concentrations as an oxygen scavenger in closed cooling systems. 8153
10237
Sulfate
 
Monitor mineral content/flavor issues. Regulated in drinking water. 8051
10227